The International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) leads the Global Wheat Program, whose main objective is to increase the productivity of wheat cropping systems to reduce poverty in developing countries. The priorities of the program are high grain yield, disease resistance, tolerance to abiotic stresses (drought and heat), and desirable quality. TheWheat Chemistry and Quality Laboratory has been continuously evolving to be able to analyze the largest number of samples possible, in the shortest time, at lowest cost, in order to deliver data on diverse quality traits on time to the breeders formaking selections for advancement in the breeding pipeline. The participation of wheat quality analysis/selection is carried out in two stages of the breeding process: evaluation of the parental
lines for new crosses and advanced lines in preliminary and elite yield trials. Thousands of lines are analyzed which requires a big investment in resources. Genomic selection has been proposed to assist in selecting for quality and other traits in breeding programs. Genomic selection can predict quantitative traits and is applicable to multiple quantitative traits in a breeding pipeline by attaining historical phenotypes and adding high-density genotypic information. Due to advances in sequencing technology, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers are available through genotyping-by-sequencing at a cost conducive to application for genomic selection. At CIMMYT, genomic selection has been applied to predict all of the processing and end-use quality traits regularly tested in the spring wheat breeding program. These traits have variable levels of prediction accuracy, however, they demonstrated thatmost expensive traits, dough rheology and baking final product, can be predicted with a high degree of confidence. Currently it is being explored howto combine both phenotypic and genomic selection to make more efficient the genetic improvement for quality traits at CIMMYT spring wheat breeding program.
Source: Wheat quality improvement at CIMMYT and the use of genomic selection on it
Published in Crop and Pasture Science 65 (1) : 16-26, 2014
Joan Subira; Peña Bautista, R.J.; Alvaro, F.; Ammar, K.; Ramdani, A.; Royo, C.
Genetic improvement of quality traits of durum wheat achieved in Italy and Spain during the 20th Century was investigated using an historical series of 12 cultivars from each country. The European Union durum wheat quality index increased by 6.25% (0.13% year–1 in Italian and 0.06% year–1 in Spanish cultivars). Protein content decreased by ~10% (–0.14% year–1 in Italian and –0.19% year–1 in Spanish cultivars) but protein per ha increased at a rate of 0.35% year–1 (0.41% year–1 in Spanish and 0.26% year–1 in Italian cultivars). Yellow colour index increased by 9.9% (0.15% year–1 in Italian and 0.10% year–1 in Spanish cultivars). Test weight and vitreousness did not suffer significant changes over time. Gluten strength increased by 32.1% or 0.54% year–1 in Italian, and 27.9% or 0.33% year–1 in Spanish cultivars. Much larger genetic control on gluten strength was found in Italian than in Spanish cultivars. Changes in sedimentation index (41.1% or 0.64% year–1 in Italy, and 41.6% or 0.49% year–1 in Spain) were the consequence of the progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). Breeding increased the frequency of the LMW-GS combination aaa, which was present in 75% of all intermediate cultivars and in 100% of the modern Italian cultivars. A LMW-GS combination not previously reported (d?b) was identified in two modern Spanish cultivars. Breeding programs were also successful in increasing the stability of gluten strength and the sedimentation index.
Diversidade e inovacoes na cadeia produtiva de milho e sorgo na era dos transgenicos
Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani, Aildson Pereira Duarte and Alfredo Tsunechiro
São 48 capítulos que apresentam conhecimentos básicos, opções de cultivos e inovações que estão em processo de adoção pelos produtores. Foi elaborado por renomados pesquisadores, professores e extensionistas, do país e do exterior, que ministraram palestras no Congresso de Milho e Sorgo – 2012, sobre assuntos diversificados, como melhoramento genético, qualidade de grãos, fitotecnia, fisiologia vegetal, fitossanidade, biotecnologia e mecanização agrícola, bem como sobre o ensino universitário.
Search for new genes. (2007) by VL Chopra, RP Sharma, SR Bhat and BM Prasanna. Academic Foundation, New Delhi.
Among the editors/contributors are also listed: K. Pixley, L. Badstue and D. Bergvinson.
Recent progress in molecular biology and biotechnology is impacting the life sciences as well as the lives of people in unprecedented ways. Plant genetic transformation and molecular marker technologies have led to a paradigm shift in plant genetic resource management and crop improvement. Granting patent protection to genes has not only provided incentive for gene discovery and placed monetary value on germplasm resources, but also raised concerns about ownership and access to genetic resources. This book is an outcome of the presentations made during Dr. B.P. Pal Birth Centenary Symposium organized by the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), New Delhi, India, in February 2006. It begins with the commemorative lectures, which trace the evolution of approaches to the search for new genes in the last seven decades, since the seminal article written by Dr. B.P. Pal on the ‘Search for new genes’ in 1936. The book provides a comprehensive update of the modern biotechnological options for biodiversity management, gene prospecting, development of ‘designer crops’ and bioremediation. The power of molecular genetics in dissection of complex biological processes, and the potential utility of the knowledge that links genes to metabolic pathways and phenotypes for plant improvement are highlighted. The book covers strategies for harnessing the community and individual knowledge for genetic resource management and gene discovery, and presents models for benefit sharing and participatory plant breeding. Written by eminent experts in the field, the book shall be of significant interest not only to the academic and research community worldwide, but also to the policy makers and science administrators.