A study was conducted to assess the performance of maize hybrids with Bt event MON810 (Bt-hybrids) against the maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in a biosafety greenhouse (BGH) and against the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under confined field trials (CFT) in Kenya for three seasons during 2013e2014. The study comprised 14 non-commercialized hybrids (seven pairs of near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrids) and four non-Bt commercial hybrids. Each plant was artificially infested twice with 10 first instar larvae. In CFT, plants were infested with C. partellus 14 and 24 days after planting; in BGH, plants were infested with B. fusca 21 and 31 days after planting. In CFT, the seven Bt hybrids significantly differed from their non-Bt counterparts for leaf damage, number of exit holes, percent tunnel length, and grain yield. When averaged over three seasons, Bt-hybrids gave the highest grain yield (9.7 t ha1), followed by non-Bt hybrids (6.9 t ha1) and commercial checks (6 t ha1). Bt-hybrids had the least number of exit holes and percent tunnel length in all the seasons as compared to the non-Bt hybrids and commercial checks. In BGH trials, Bt-hybrids consistently suffered less leaf damage than their non-Bt near isolines. The study demonstrated that MON810 was effective in controlling B. fusca and
C. partellus. Bt-maize, therefore, has great potential to reduce the risk of maize grain losses in Africa due to stem borers, and will enable the smallholder farmers to produce high-quality grain with increased
yield, reduced insecticide inputs, and improved food security.
Source: Resistance of Bt-maize (MON810) against the stem borers Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and its yield performance in Kenya
Authors: Mwimali, M., Derera, J., Mugo, S.N., Tongoona, P.
Published in: Euphytica, In Press.
Stem borers, Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus, are among the key devastating lepidopteran insect pests ofmaize causing grain yield losses.Recurrent
selection studies for stem borer resistance in maize are limited. However, maize populations carrying resistance genes to these stem borers have not been exploited fully in breeding programmes. The objective of the study was to separately improve resistance to B. fusca and C. partellus stem borers for two maize populations CML395/MBR C5 Bc and CML444/MBR/MDR C3Bc and therefore grain yield after two cycles of S1 progeny recurrent selection. Cycle 0 and the advanced generations (cycle 1-susceptible, cycle 1-resistant and cycle 2-resistant) were evaluated at three locations in Kenya using a 35 9 12 a-lattice design with 2 replications. The net reductions in cumulative tunneling, number of exit holes and leaf feeding damage scores ranged from0 to 69 %for both populations after two cycles of selection. In the two populations, each cycle of selection for borer resistance improved grain yield by 0.5–0.8 t ha-1. Actual net gains in grain yield with reference to cycle 0 were 43 % for population CML395/MBRC5 Bc under B. fusca infestation and 70 % under C. partellus infestation. For population CML444/MBR/MDR C3Bc, the actual net gains in grain yield were 25 %under B. fusca infestation and 36 % under C. partellus infestation. The reductions in the injurious effects attributable to leaf feeding damage, cumulative stem tunneling and number of exit holes contributed towards the 43 and 70 % net genetic gain in grain yield under B. fusca and C. partellus infestation respectively, for both populations. Broad sense heritability (H2) for grain yield ranged from 2 to 98 % in both maize populations. The study showed that two cycles of S1 progeny recurrent selection was effective in accumulating favourable alleles for B. fusca and C. partellus stem borer resistance.
Published in Crop Protection 29(2):115-120, 2010
Evaluation of Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca susceptibility to Delta-endotoxins in Bt maize
Regina M. Tende, Stephen N. Mugo, John H. Nderitu, Florence M. Olubayo, Josephine M. Songa, David J. Bergvinson
Susceptibility of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) and Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations to Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the δ-endotoxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba in Bt-maize, were evaluated under biosafety greenhouse conditions. Larval feeding on Bt-maize was adjusted to deliver sub-lethal doses of δ-endotoxins from the two events; survivors were reared on artificial diet to obtain successive generations. Eight generations of three C. partellus populations and five generations of a B. fusca population were screened for susceptibility on each event. Mean proportion of surviving larvae from Bt-maize plants, and the corresponding pupal weights of survivors for each population, were lower for individuals exposed to δ-endotoxins. Both Bt Cry proteins expressed in maize leaves controlled C. partellus and showed stability in control, with no indication of a change in susceptibility among generations. Neither toxin, however, provided complete control of B. fusca, but no changes in susceptibility were observed after five generations of selection. Implications for development of future transgenic Bt maize events, and research for East Africa are discussed