Posts Tagged ‘Sorghum’

Dry soil planting of sorghum for vertisols of Ethiopia

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Agronomy Journal 106 (2) : 469-474, 2014

Merga, F.Kindie Tesfaye FantayeWortmann, C.S.

Soil water deficits constrain productivity in Ethiopia. Farmers respond to variable onset of rain in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia by dry soil planting sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] to take advantage of early rains and increase the period of crop growth before rains cease in late September or early October. Crop establishment is often unsatisfactory. The effect of dry soil planting depth for sorghum was evaluated with three water deficit scenarios on Vertisols in CRV. Dry soil planting at 5-cm depth resulted in relatively better seedling emergence, plant survival, individual plant wt., and leaf plant–1 for all water regimes as compared with other dry planting depths. The best plant establishment (80%) occurred with a local variety planted at 5-cm depth with no water applied for 15 d after dry soil planting followed by 30 mm applied at 5-d intervals from 15 to 30 d after planting (W3). The worst establishment (12%) was with planting at 7-cm depth and irrigating after planting with 30 mm of water and then adding 30 mm at 5-d intervals from 15 to 30 d after planting (W1). Risk of failed crop establishment with dry soil planting on a Vertisol is less with 5 cm compared with other planting depths. The W3 type of water deficit, with seed lying in dry soil for 15 d before water was applied, is less detrimental to sorghum establishment and early growth, compared with rainfall after planting followed by a dry period of 15 d.

New book in the library: Diversidade e inovacoes na cadeia produtiva de milho e sorgo na era dos transgenicos

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in New Acquisitions

Diversidade e inovacoes na cadeia produtiva de milho e sorgo na era dos transgenicos

Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani, Aildson Pereira Duarte and Alfredo Tsunechiro
ISBN: 978-85-85564-26-1
Instituto Agronomico
780 pages

São 48 capítulos que apresentam conhecimentos básicos, opções de cultivos e inovações que estão em processo de adoção pelos produtores. Foi elaborado por renomados pesquisadores, professores e extensionistas, do país e do exterior, que ministraram palestras no Congresso de Milho e Sorgo – 2012, sobre assuntos diversificados, como melhoramento genético, qualidade de grãos, fitotecnia, fisiologia vegetal, fitossanidade, biotecnologia e mecanização agrícola, bem como sobre o ensino universitário.

Biological Nitrification Inhibition (BNI) – A novel strategy to regulate nitrification in agricultural systems

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Advances in Agronomy 114: 249-302, 2012

G.V. Subbarao, K.L. Sahrawat, K. Nakahara, T. Ishikawa, M. Kishii, I.M. Rao, C.T. Hash, T.S. George, P. Srinivasa Rao, P. Nardi, D. Bonnett, W. Berry, K. Suenaga, J.C. Lata

Human activity has had the single largest influence on the global nitrogen (N) cycle by introducing unprecedented amounts of reactive-N into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive-N, applied as fertilizer to crops, leaks into the environment with cascading negative effects on ecosystem functions and contributes to global warming. Natural ecosystems use multiple pathways of the N-cycle to regulate the flow of this element. By contrast, the large amounts of N currently applied in agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification process, a single inefficient route that allows much of the reactive-N to leak into the environment. The fact that present agricultural systems do not channel this reactive-N through alternate pathways is largely due to uncontrolled soil nitrifier activity, creating a rapid nitrifying soil environment. Regulating nitrification is therefore central to any strategy for improving nitrogen-use efficiency. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is an active plant-mediated natural function, where nitrification inhibitors released from plant roots suppress soil-nitrifying activity, thereby forcing N into other pathways. This review illustrates the presence of detection methods for variation in physiological regulation of BNI-function in field crops and pasture grasses and analyzes the potential for its genetic manipulation. We present a conceptual framework utilizing a BNI-platform that integrates diverse crop science disciplines with ecological principles. Sustainable agriculture will require development of production systems that include new crop cultivars capable of controlling nitrification (i.e., high BNI-capacity) and improved agronomic practices to minimize leakage of reactive-N during the N-cycle, a critical requirement for increasing food production while avoiding environmental damage.