Posts Tagged ‘Journal of Cereal Science’

Influence of cultivar and environment on quality of Latin American wheats

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal  Science, 2012

Daniel Vázquez, Andrés G. Berger, Martha Cuniberti, Carlos Bainotti, Martha Zavariz de Miranda, Pedro Luiz Scheeren, Claudio Jobet, Javier Zúñiga, Graciela Cabrera, Rubén Verges, Roberto Javier Peña

Wheat consumption is growing, with processors asking for wheat-based products showing better and more consistent quality. Genotype, environment and their interaction (G × E) play an important role in the final expression of quality attributes. An international research consortium was developed in order to evaluate the magnitude of genotype, environment and G × E effects on wheat quality of cultivars developed for different agro-ecological zones in Latin America. Genotypes released in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay and Uruguay, were cultivated in twenty different environments within the participating countries. Each environment was characterized for cultural practices, soil type and climatic conditions. Grain yield and analyses of test weight, protein, ash, gluten, Alveograph, Farinograph, Falling Number, SDS sedimentation and flour color were determined. Allelic variations of puroindolines and glutenins were determined in all the genotypes evaluated. Both puroindoline and gluten protein alleles corresponded to genotypes possessing medium to very good bread making quality. Large variability for most quality attributes evaluated was observed, with wider ranges in quality parameters across environments than among genotypes; even for parameters known to be largely determined by genotype. The importance of growing environment on grain quality was proved, suggesting that breeders’ quality objectives should be adapted to the targeted environments.

 

Comparative analyses of LMW glutenin alleles in bread wheat using allele-specific PCR and SDS-PAGE

Posted by on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 54(3): 488-493, 2011

Comparative analyses of LMW glutenin alleles in bread wheat using allele-specific PCR and SDS-PAGE

 Sewa Rama, Shikha Sharma, Anukriti Verma, Bhudeva Singh Tyagi, Roberto J. Peña

One hundred and eighty-two bread wheat cultivars developed in India were characterized for low molecular weight (LMW) glutenins using SDS-PAGE and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess allelic diversity encoded by Glu-3 loci, as well as their utility for correctly identifying different alleles. SDS-PAGE indicated Glu-A3c is present in 64.6% of the cultivars, Glu-A3b in 13.8%, Glu-A3d in 12.7% and Glu-A3e/f in 8.8%. Seven types of alleles were present at the Glu-B3 locus: Glu-B3b (29.3%), Glu-B3g (27.0%), Glu-B3h (13.8%), Glu-B3i (16.1%), Glu-B3j (12.1%), Glu-B3c (0.6%) and Glu-B3d (1.1%). SDS-PAGE found three types of Glu-D3 alleles: Glu-D3a (30.2%), Glu-D3b (67.1%) and Glu-D3c (2.7%). However, PCR found two different alleles in cultivars classified as carrying Glu-D3a and three alleles in those identified as carrying Glu-D3b cultivars, indicating a more complex nature of the Glu-D3 locus. In conclusion, the data found greater consistency between the SDS-PAGE and PCR amplification patterns of alleles such as Glu-A3c, Glu-A3d, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3i, and less consistency between those same patterns in the Glu-A3b, Glu-A3e/f and Glu-B3b alleles. More studies are needed in order to achieve unambiguous identification of the Glu-3 alleles and thereby allow their greater utility in germplasm evaluation and breeding.

Cloning, expression and functional analysis of HMW glutenin subunit 1By8 gene from Italy pasta wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)

Posted by on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 50; 398-406

Cloning, expression and functional analysis of HMW glutenin subunit 1By8 gene from Italy pasta wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)

Y.M. Yan, Y. Jiang, X.L. An, Y.H. Pei, X.H. Li, Y.Z. Zhang, A.L. Wang, Z. He, X. Xia, F. Bekes and W. Ma

Cloning and functional analysis of high molecular weight wheat glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1By8 from Italy durum cultivar Simeto was carried out in this study. All HMW-GS from Simeto were separated and characterized by appropriate electrophoresis methods, reversed-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The complete gene encoding 1By8 subunit was amplified by allele-specific PCR primers, including an upstream sequence of 857 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2166 bp encoding a mature protein of 720 amino acid residues. The promoter sequence, containing -300 element (cereal glutenin gene control element) and enhancer was highly conserved among HMW-GS genes. Comparison with the sequence of subunit 1By9 from bread wheat demonstrated 99% identity with the main difference being that the 1By8 subunit possesses an additional insertion of 15 amino acid residues (QYPASQQQPA QGQQG) at position 342 and two residue substitutions at position 78 (leucine/proline) and 442 (arginine/glutamine). The molecular weight differences between MALDI-TOF-MS and deduced amino acid sequence of the coding gene revealed the possibility of some kinds of post-translational modifications present in 1By8 subunit. The protein subunit expressed in Escherichia coli showed a very similar mobility to the endogenous 1By8 of Simeto on SDS-PAGE. The function of the isolated protein on wheat processing quality was determined by 10 g Mixgraph analysis. Results demonstrated that addition of y-type HMW glutenin subunits into the base flour had significant positive effects on main mixing parameters and significant difference in effects were observed among different y-type subunits.

Milling and Chinese raw white noodle qualities of common wheat near-isogenic lines differing in puroindoline b alleles

Posted by on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 50(1): 126-130

Milling and Chinese raw white noodle qualities of common wheat near-isogenic lines differing in puroindoline b alleles

Ma, D.; Zhang, Y.; Xia, X.; Morris, C.F.; He, Zhonghu.

Understanding the effects of different alleles at the puroindoline b (Pinb) locus on processing quality will provide crucial information for quality improvement. Seven near-isogenic lines (NILs) planted at two locations in the 2008 cropping season were used to determine the effect of puroindoline b alleles on milling performance and Chinese raw white noodle (CRWN) quality. The Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotype possessed significantly higher values in grain hardness, protein content and starch damage than other genotypes, whereas the Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d genotype had the lowest grain hardness and starch damage, with higher break flour yield, and less reduction flour yield, higher flour colour L*, and lower flour colour b*, than other genotypes. Farinograph parameters, except for water absorption, were not significantly affected by variation of puroindoline b alleles. Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e had the highest peak viscosity, whereas the lowest value was observed in a Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotype. For CRWN quality, higher noodle viscoelasticity was obtained in the genotype Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g, whereas Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d had a lower smoothness score. Genotypes with Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g produced the best total noodle score. It was concluded that genotype Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d had better milling qualities, whereas Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g had slightly superior CRWN qualities in comparison with other genotypes