Posts Tagged ‘Journal of Cereal Science’

Wheat seed storage proteins: Advances in molecular genetics, diversity and breeding applications

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science, 2014

Rasheed, A.; Xianchun Xia; Yueming Yan; Appels, R.; Mahmood, T.; He Zhonghu.

Wheat seed storage proteins, especially glutenins and gliadins, have unique functional properties giving rise to a wide array of food products for human consumption. The wheat seed storage proteins, however, are also the most common cause of food-related allergies and intolerances, and it has become crucially important to understand their composition, variation and functional properties and interface this knowledge with the grain handling industry as well as the breeders. This review focuses on advances in understanding the genetics and function of storage proteins and their application in wheat breeding programs. These include: (1) The development and validation of high-throughput molecular marker systems for defining the composition and variation of low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) genes and a summary of the more than 30 gene-specific markers for rapid screening in wheat breeding programs; (2) The identification of more than 100 alleles of storage proteins in wild species provide candidate genes for future quality improvement; (3) The documentation of quality effects of individual LMW-GS and HMW-GS for improving end-use quality; and (4) The analysis of α-gliadin genes on chromosomes 6A and 6D with non-toxic epitopes as potential targets to develop less toxic cultivars for people with celiac disease. Genomic and proteomic technologies that will continue to provide new tools for understanding variation and function of seed storage proteins in wheat are discussed.

Meeting demands for increased cereal production in China

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science, 2013

He Zhonghu; Xia Xianchun; Peng, S.; Lumpkin, T.A.

Meeting demands for increased cereal production in China is a great challenge and this paper provides updated information on cereal production and the potential adaptation of cropping systems to climate change, as well as on progress in improving yield potential and developing molecular markers and GM cereals in China. Maize production and soybean imports are increasing significantly to meet the strong demand for feed by a rapidly growing livestock industry. Extension of the rice and maize growing seasons in northeastern China and improvement of the cropping system through delayed wheat planting have contributed to improving cereal productivity despite changing climatic conditions. Significant improvements in yield potential of rice, maize, and wheat have been achieved. Comparative genomics has been successfully used to develop and validate functional markers for processing quality traits in wheat, and also for developing new varieties. Although transgenic Bt rice and maize, and maize expressing phytase have been developed, their commercialization has not been officially permitted. International collaboration has contributed significantly to cereal production by providing germplasm and improved crop management practices. Full integration of applied molecular technologies into conventional breeding programs and promotion of lower-input technologies, will play a key role in increasing and sustaining future cereal production.

Effect of annealing from traditional nixtamalisation process on the microstructural, thermal, and rheological properties of starch and quality of pozole

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science, 2013

Dios Figueroa, J. de; Veles Medina, J.J.; Hernandez Landaverde, M.A.;Aragon Cuevas, F.; Gaytan Martinez, M.; Chavez Martinez, E.; Palacios-Rojas, N.; Willcox, M.

Eleven maize landraces were evaluated for pozole quality. The microstructural, thermal and rheological properties of annealed starch granules determine most of the quality of pozole. Annealed starch in traditional nixtamalisation has an important role in increasing gelatinisation onset (To), peak (Tp) and final (Tf) temperatures; peak, setback and final viscosity as well as the stability of the starch granule, all of which significantly affect pozole quality. Annealed starch in Cacahuacintle nixtamal (pozole end-use) increased temperatures To, Tp and Tf by >5.2, >3.8 and >4.1 °C respectively, and narrowed the range Tf − To from 13.78 to 12.62 °C. The enthalpy was reduced from 6.76 to 5.85 J/g, while the nixtamal starch in tortilla maize landraces presented fewer annealing effects. The annealing effect in nixtamal starch seems to stabilize the starch granules and avoid their collapse, compared to native starch, as shown by the X-ray diffraction peak intensity and pattern that is similar to unprocessed maize. Starch in nixtamal changes from Type A to Type V pattern in pozole. Kernel physical parameters, although important, affected the quality to a lesser extent, with the exception of the flotation index. Cacahuacintle maize landrace showed the best quality and yield as well as a short pozole cooking time.

Biofortification strategies to increase grain zinc and iron concentrations in wheat

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science, 2013

Velu, G.; Ortiz-Monasterio, I.;Cakmak, I.; Hao, Y.; Singh, R.P.

Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those arising from zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), pose serious human health problems for more than 2 billion people worldwide. Wheat is a major source of dietary energy and protein for the world’s growing population, and its potential to assist in reducing micronutrient-related malnutrition can be enhanced via integration of agronomic fertilization practices and delivery of genetically-manipulated, micronutrient rich wheat varieties. Targeted breeding for these biofortified varieties was initiated by exploiting available genetic diversity for Zn and Fe from wild relatives of cultivated wheat and synthetic hexaploid progenitors. The proof-of-concept results from the performance of competitive biofortified wheat lines showed good adaptation in target environments without compromising essential core agronomic traits. Agronomic biofortification through fertilizer approaches could complement the existing breeding approach; for instance, foliar application of Zn fertilizer can increase grain Zn above the breeding target set by nutritionists. This review synthesizes the progress made in genetic and agronomic biofortification strategies for Zn and Fe enrichment of wheat.

Determination of phenolic acid concentrations in wheat flours produced at different extraction rates

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 57 (1) : 67-72, 2013

Lan Wang, Yang Yao, He Zhonghu, Desen Wang, Aihua Liu and Yong Zhang

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the distribution of phenolic acids in wheat flours produced from five milling extraction rates ranging from 60% to 100% in four cultivars sown in two locations in the 2008–2009 season. Considerable variation was observed in free and bound phenolic acids, and their components in flours with different extraction rates. Most phenolic acids, including the component ferulic, were present in the bound form (94.0%). Ferulic (51.0%) was the predominant phenolic acid in wheat grain, and caffeic (22.8%) and p-coumaric (17.6%) acids were abundant. The phenolic acids and their components were all significantly influenced by effects of cultivar, milling, location, and cultivar × milling interaction, with milling effect being the predominant. The proportions of phenolic compounds varied considerably among milling extractions and cultivars, and their levels depended on both initial grain concentrations and on selection of milling extraction that was incorporated into the final product. The grain phenolic acid concentrations determined ranged from 54 μg g−1 in flour produced at 60% extraction rate to 695 μg g−1 in flour produced at 100% extraction rate, indicating their higher concentrations in bran associated with cell wall materials. Therefore, wholemeal wheat products maximize health benefits and are strongly recommended for use in food processing.

Effects of allelic variation of HMW-GS and LMW-GS on mixograph properties and Chinese noodle and steamed bread qualities in a set of Aroona near-isogenic wheat lines

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 57 (1) : 146-152, 2013

Hui Jin, Yan Zhang, Genying Li, Peiyuan Mu, Zheru Fan, Xianchun Xia and He Zhonghu

High-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin (LMW-GS) subunits play an important role in determining wheat quality. To clarify the contribution of each subunit/allele to processing quality, 25 near-isogenic lines with different HMW-GS and LMW-GS compositions grown at two locations during the 2010 cropping season were used to investigate the effects of allelic variation on milling parameters, mixograph properties, raw white Chinese noodle (RWCN) and northern style Chinese steamed bread (NSCSB) qualities. The results showed that Glu-B1 and Glu-B3 made a large contribution to determining mixograph properties and processing quality, respectively. Subunit pairs 17 + 18 and 5 + 10, and alleles Glu-A3bGlu-A3dGlu-B3g and Glu-D3f made significant contributions to mixograph properties and no significant difference was detected on most parameters of RWCN and NSCSB for the allelic variation of HMW-GS and LMW-GS. The allelic interactions among glutenin loci had significant effects on wheat quality. The line with 1, 17 + 18, 2 + 12, Glu-A3cGlu-B3bGlu-D3c associated with superior mixograph properties, the line with 1, 7 + 9, 2 + 12, Glu-A3cGlu-B3dGlu-D3c had superior viscoelasticity of RWCN, and the line with 1, 7 + 9, 2 + 12, Glu-A3eGlu-B3bGlu-D3c had the highest total score of NSCSB. These results provide useful information for genetic improvement of the qualities of traditional Chinese wheat products.

Heat and drought stress on durum wheat: Responses of genotypes, yield, and quality parameters

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 57 (3) : 398-404, 2013

Yun-Fang Li, Yu Wu, Nayelli  Hernandez-Espinosa and Roberto J. Peña

Heat and/or drought stress during cultivation are likely to affect the processing quality of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). This work examined the effects of drought and heat stress conditions on grain yield and quality parameters of nine durum wheat varieties, grown during two years (2008–09 and 2009–10). Generally, G and E showed main effects on all the parameters whereas the effects of G × E were relatively small. More precipitation in Y09–10 may account for the large differences in parameters observed between crop cycles (Y08–09 and Y09–10). Combined results of the two crop cycles showed that flour protein content (FP) and SDS sedimentation volume (SDSS) increased under both stress conditions, but not significantly. In contrast the gluten strength-related parameters lactic acid retention capacity (LARC) and mixograph peak time (MPT) increased and decreased significantly under drought and heat stress, respectively. Drought and heat stress drastically reduced grain yield (Y) but significantly enhanced flour yellowness (FY). LARC and the swelling index of glutenin (SIG) could be alternative tests to screen for gluten strength. Genotypes and qualtiy parameters performed differently to drought and heat stress, which justifies screening durum wheat for both yield and quality traits under these two abiotic stress conditions.

 

The influence of drought and heat stress on the expression of end-use quality parameters of common wheat

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 57 (1) : 73-78, 2013

Yunfang Li, Yu Wu, Nayelli Hernandez-Espinosa and Roberto J. Peña

The effects of drought and heat stress on quality parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars were studied under field conditions in a 2-year trial (2009–2010) in northwest Mexico. Under no stress conditions, rapid small-scale parameters [protein (GP; FP) content, SDS sedimentation (SDSS), mixograph peak time (MPT), swelling index of glutenin (SIG), and lactic acid retention capacity (LARC)] showed significant relationship with gluten strength (alveograph energy, W) and bread loaf volume (LV). SIG and LARC were better than SDSS and MPT for predicting W, while SDSS was better than W and SIG for predicting bread LV. Most quality traits were primarily controlled by genotype (G), although environment (E) and G × E also had significant effects. Heat and drought stress showed contrasting effects on LARC, MPT, alveograph parameters [tenacity (P), extensibility (L), P/L ratio, W] and LV. Increase in P and decrease in L resulted in higher tenacity (larger P/L), which may explain the smaller loaf volume under drought stress. In contrast, decrease in P and increase in L, may explain the improved bread volume observed under heat stress. It is advisable to select for wheat quality under both favorable and abiotic stress conditions to identify genotypes with quality stability across environments.

 

Segregation analysis indicates that Puroindoline b-2 variants 2 and 3 are allelic in Triticum aestivum and that a revision to Puroindoline b-2 gene symbolization is indicated

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 57 (1) : 61-66, 2013

Hongwei Geng, Brian S. Beecher, Michael Pumphrey, Zhonghu He and Craig F. Morris

Genetic and kernel texture relationships between Puroindoline b-2 variants 2 and 3 have not been fully established in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, 480 F2 plants, derived from three hard spring wheat populations were used to test the segregation of Puroindoline b-2 (Pinb-2) variants 2 and 3. Chi-square analysis indicated that Pinb-2 variants 2 and 3 in all three F2 populations segregated as a single bi-allelic locus, with segregation ratios fitting a 1:2:1 ratio. Using 448 of the 480 plants derived from these three F2 populations, the average SKCS hardness index of plants homozygous for Pinb-2 variant 2 vs. those homozygous for variant 3 was not significantly different (67.5 vs. 67.9). Results indicated that plants with Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a were on average 10.0 Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) hardness index units harder than those carrying the Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b haplotype. In conclusion, Pinb-2 variants 2 and 3 are allelic and exert little effect on kernel texture in hard-kernel T. aestivum germplasm. Further, the designation of Pinb-2v2 and Pinb-2v3 should be changed to Pinb-B2a and Pinb-B2b, respectively. We propose that Pinb-2 variants 1 and 4 of Chinese Spring be designated Pinb-D2a and Pinb-A2a, respectively.

Phenolic acid profiles of Chinese wheat cultivars

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 56(3) : 629-635, 2012

Yong Zhang, Lan Wang, Yang Yao, Jun Yan and  He Zhonghu

Phenolic acid concentrations were determined in 37 Chinese commercial winter wheat cultivars grown at a single site over two seasons, and fractions comprising free and bound types were analyzed using HPLC with measurements of individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Most of the parameters were significantly influenced by cultivar, season, and their interaction effects, with cultivar variance being predominant. Wide ranges of concentration among the 37 cultivars were observed. The average concentration of bound type was 661 μg g−1 of dm, making up 97.5% of the phenolic acid determined with ferulic accounting for 70.7% of it, while free type made up only 2.5% of the phenolic acid determined with syringic accounting for 44.7% of it. Bound type was the predominant source to the grain phenolic acid concentrations determined. There were highly significant and positive correlations between bound ferulic concentration and total bound phenolic acid concentration, and between free syringic concentration and total free phenolic acid concentration. Cultivars Liangxing 66 and Zhongmai 895 were stable in concentration of components of phenolic acids across seasons, with high values of free and bound phenolic acids indicating they could be selected as parents in wheat breeding for health beneficial phenolic acid.