Posts Tagged ‘common wheat’

Genetic analysis of vegetative ground cover rate in winter wheat using digital imaging

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Acta Agronomica Sinica 39 (11) : 1935-1943, 2013

Xiao Yong-Gui; Liu Jian-Jun; Xia Xian-Chun; Chen Xin-Min; Reynolds, M.P.; He Zhong-Hu

Vegetative vigour is an important physiological trait and selection for greater seedling vigour is a goal of breeding programs, especially in rain-fed regions. This study aimed to identify the genetic variation of early vigour, determine the agronomic traits most closely associated with seedling growth, and detect the major gene-containing region of early vigour in winter wheat. Twenty-eight cultivars and advanced lines at two planting densities (240 plants m-2 and 360 plants m-2) were grown in Jinan during 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 cropping seasons, with randomized complete block design of three replications. Whole-genome association mapping was employed to identify the chromosome region controlling early vigour using 921 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and 83 SSR markers. Early vigour was evaluated with vegetative ground cover rate via implementation of photographic image analysis, whereby computer analysis was used to determine percentage ground cover. Significant differences of ground cover rate between two planting densities were detected in pre-winter period, erecting and booting stages, but not in early stem elongation stage. Ground cover rate in erecting stage was significantly and positively associated with maximum tiller number (= 0.76, < 0.01), leaf area index (= 0.74, < 0.01), spike number (= 0.73, < 0.01), and grain yield (= 0.73, < 0.01). Twelve gene-containing regions for vegetative ground cover rate were detected in two seasons. Most of the regions conditioning the vegetative ground cover rate were not affected by the developmental stages. Ten gene-containing regions identified were consistent with previously reported QTLs for seedling traits, grain yield and disease resistance. Three regions on 5BL, 6AS, and 6BL were the same as previously reported loci for seedling traits. Therefore, there is sufficient genetic variation to increase early vigour in winter wheat, and early vigour could be quickly measured through digital image analysis.

Molecular mapping of leaf rust resistance gene LrFun in Romanian wheat line Fundulea 900

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Molecular Breeding, 2013

Lifang Xing; Cuifen Wang; Xianchun Xia; He Zhonghu; Wanquan Chen; Taiguo Liu; Zaifeng Li; Daqun Liu

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is one of the major wheat diseases worldwide and poses a constant threat to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production and food security. Results from the F2 and F2:3 populations derived from a cross between resistant line Fundulea 900 and susceptible cultivar Thatcher indicated that a single dominant gene, tentatively designated LrFun,conferred resistance to leaf rust. In order to identify other possible genes in Fundulea 900, nine P.triticina pathotypes avirulent on Fundulea 900 were used to inoculate F2:3 families. The results showed that at least two leaf rust resistance genes were present in Fundulea 900. A total of 1,706 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to test the parents and resistant and susceptible bulks. Eight polymorphic markers from chromosome 7BL were used for genotyping the F2 and F2:3 populations. LrFun was linked to eight SSR loci on chromosome 7BL. The two closest flanking SSR loci were Xgwm344 and Xwmc70, with genetic distances of 4.4 and 5.7 cM, respectively. At present four leaf rust resistance genes, Lr14aLr14bLr68 and LrBi16, are located on chromosome 7BL. In a seedling test with 12 P. triticina isolates, the reaction patterns of LrFunwere different from those of lines carrying Lr14aLr14b and LrBi16Lr68 is an adult plant resistance gene, and it is different from the seedling resistance gene LrFun. Therefore, we concluded that LrFunis a new leaf rust resistance gene.

Effects of high molecular weight glutenin subunits on wheat quality by Aroona and its near-isogenic lines

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Scientia Agricultura Sinica 46 (6) : 1095-1103, 2013

JIN Hui; He Zhonghu; Li Gen-ying; Mu Pei-yuan; Fan Zhe-ru; Xia Xian-Chun; Zhang Yan

Objective: The effects of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) on dough properties, quantity of gluten protein fractions, and bread-making quality were determined under the same genetic background of low molecular weight glutenin subunits (Glu-A3c, Glu-B3b, Glu-D3c). Method: Near-isogenic lines (NILs) developed from Australian cultivar Aroona planted in Urumqi and Shihezi in Xijiang during the 2010 cropping season were used to investigate Farinograph, Extensograph, quantity of gluten protein fractions, and bread-making quality. Result: The effect of HMW-GS on extensibility was not significant. For dough strength, different HMW-GS loci were ranked as Glu-D1>Glu-B1>Glu-A1 and the subunit pairs 7+9, 17+18, and 5+10 were correlated with superior dough strength. The line with 1, 7+9, 5+10 performed the best dough strength while those with 2*, 7+9, 2+12 and 1, 7+9, 2.2+12 were associated with superior extensibility. For the percent of SDS-unextractable glutenin polymeric protein (%UPP), different HMW-GS loci were ranked as Glu-D1>Glu-B1>Glu-A1 and the subunit pairs 7+9, 17+18, and 5+10 exhibited the highest %UPP. The line with 1, 7+9, 5+10 was associated with the highest %UPP. For bread-making quality, different HMW-GS loci were ranked as Glu-D1>Glu-A1>Glu-B1 and the subunits 1, 2*, 2+12, and 5+10 showed the higher total score. The line with 1, 7+9, 2+12 had the highest total score, 1, 7+9, 5+10 showed the second highest total score, and null, 7+9, 2+12 displayed the lowest total score. Conclusion: The effects of HMW-GS on dough strength, quantity of gluten protein fractions, and bread-making quality were significant under the same genetic background of LMW-GS (Glu-A3c, Glu-B3b, Glu-D3c); Subunits 1, 2*, 7+9, 17+18, and 5+10 were correlated with superior wheat quality and the line with 1, 7+9, 5+10 is ideal for improving bread-making quality.

Determination of phenolic acid concentrations in wheat flours produced at different extraction rates

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 57 (1) : 67-72, 2013

Lan Wang, Yang Yao, He Zhonghu, Desen Wang, Aihua Liu and Yong Zhang

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the distribution of phenolic acids in wheat flours produced from five milling extraction rates ranging from 60% to 100% in four cultivars sown in two locations in the 2008–2009 season. Considerable variation was observed in free and bound phenolic acids, and their components in flours with different extraction rates. Most phenolic acids, including the component ferulic, were present in the bound form (94.0%). Ferulic (51.0%) was the predominant phenolic acid in wheat grain, and caffeic (22.8%) and p-coumaric (17.6%) acids were abundant. The phenolic acids and their components were all significantly influenced by effects of cultivar, milling, location, and cultivar × milling interaction, with milling effect being the predominant. The proportions of phenolic compounds varied considerably among milling extractions and cultivars, and their levels depended on both initial grain concentrations and on selection of milling extraction that was incorporated into the final product. The grain phenolic acid concentrations determined ranged from 54 μg g−1 in flour produced at 60% extraction rate to 695 μg g−1 in flour produced at 100% extraction rate, indicating their higher concentrations in bran associated with cell wall materials. Therefore, wholemeal wheat products maximize health benefits and are strongly recommended for use in food processing.

Marker-Assisted Selection of HMW-Glutenin 1Dx5+1Dy10 Gene and 1B/1R Translocation for Improving Industry Quality in Common Wheat

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Acta Agronomica Sinica 38 (10) : 1743-1751, 2012

Zhang Yong, Shen Xiao-Yong, Zhang Wen-Xiang, Chen Xin-Min, Yan Jun, Zhang Yan, Wang De-Sen, Wang Zhong-Wei, Liu Yue-Fang, Tian Yu-Bing, Xia Xian-Chun and  He Zhonghu

Glutenin subunits play an important role in determining processing quality in common wheat. In this study, a total of 125 BC2F4 lines derived from four populations by marker-assisted backcrossing, with Yumai 34, Gaocheng 8901, and Zhongyou 9507 as quality donor and Lunxuan 987, Shi 4185, and Zhoumai 16 as recipients, were used to assess the effect of glutenin subunit 5+10 and 1B/1R translocation on quality parameters including protein content, mixograph mixing time and peak integral. A wide range of variation for all quality parameters in the populations was detected. Lines with 1Dx5+1Dy10 performed significantly longer mixing time and higher peak integral than those with alleles 1Dx2+1Dy12, while the genetic background of parents had a large impact on mixing time and peak integral among 1B/1R translocation lines. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that mixing time and peak integral were related with the quantity of glutenin subunit fractions, and significant and positive correlations between mixing time, peak integral and the quantity of LMW-GS were observed, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.38 to 0.74 (P < 0.05). Lines with 1Dx5+1Dy10 also performed significantly higher quantity of both HMW-GS and LMW-GS than those with alleles 1Dx2+1Dy12, while the effect of alleles at Glu-B3 locus on quantity of HMW-GS was insignificant, and that on quantity of LMW-GS varied among the populations. It would be efficient to select new line through backcross with quality parent as donor and high yield parent as recipient, by marker-assisted selection of Glu-D1d gene and 1B/1R translocation, in combination with field selection on agronomic parameters.

Phenolic acid profiles of Chinese wheat cultivars

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Cereal Science 56(3) : 629-635, 2012

Yong Zhang, Lan Wang, Yang Yao, Jun Yan and  He Zhonghu

Phenolic acid concentrations were determined in 37 Chinese commercial winter wheat cultivars grown at a single site over two seasons, and fractions comprising free and bound types were analyzed using HPLC with measurements of individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Most of the parameters were significantly influenced by cultivar, season, and their interaction effects, with cultivar variance being predominant. Wide ranges of concentration among the 37 cultivars were observed. The average concentration of bound type was 661 μg g−1 of dm, making up 97.5% of the phenolic acid determined with ferulic accounting for 70.7% of it, while free type made up only 2.5% of the phenolic acid determined with syringic accounting for 44.7% of it. Bound type was the predominant source to the grain phenolic acid concentrations determined. There were highly significant and positive correlations between bound ferulic concentration and total bound phenolic acid concentration, and between free syringic concentration and total free phenolic acid concentration. Cultivars Liangxing 66 and Zhongmai 895 were stable in concentration of components of phenolic acids across seasons, with high values of free and bound phenolic acids indicating they could be selected as parents in wheat breeding for health beneficial phenolic acid.

Characterization of genetic diversity of puroindoline genes in Mexican wheat landraces

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Euphytica, 2012

Marcela Ayala, Carlos Guzmán, Juan B. Alvarez and Roberto J. Peña

Grain hardness is a major factor determining milling performance of common wheat. It determines the amount of damaged starch generated during milling, and therefore the end use of a given variety. One hundred and two lines from 15 Mexican wheat landraces were analyzed for grain hardness and for its genetic control. Sixteen lines were hard and 86 were soft-textured. All hard lines could be explained by a mutation in either the PinaD1 or PinbD1 genes. In six hard lines there was no amplification of PinaD1, suggesting that this gene was deleted (PinaD1b allele). The remaining ten hard lines showed the presence of both PinaD1 and PinbD1. Sequencing the PinbD1 genes of the hard lines revealed the presence of two different alleles (PinbD1b and PinbD1e). The results substantiate the importance of very old Mexican landraces as potential sources of genetic diversity for key quality traits in the development of modern wheat cultivars with different grain textures.

Distribution of Allelic variation for vernalization, photoperiod, and dwarfing genes and their effects on growth period and plant height among cultivars from major wheat producing countries

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2012

Yang Fang-Ping, Xia Xian-Chun, Zhang Yong, Zhang Xiao-ke,  Liu Jian-Jun, Tang Jian-Wei, Yang Xue-Ming, Zhang Jun-Ru, Liu Qian, Li Shi-zhao, and He Zhonghu

To efficiently use exotic resources in Chinese wheat breeding programs, we investigated the heading date, maturity date, and plant height of 100 representative cultivars collected from 14 countries at eight locations in China, and detected the allelic variations of vernalization loci VRN-1 and VRN-B3, photoperiod gene Ppd-D1a,and dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b by means of molecular markers. The frequencies of vernalization loci were 8.0% for Vrn-A1a, 21.0% for Vrn-B1, 21.0% for Vrn-D1 and 64.0% for vrn-A1+vrn-B1+ vrn-D1, except for the absence of dominant allele Vrn-B3 in all tested materials. Dominant vernalization alleles Vrn-A1a, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1 were mainly observed in cultivars from Chinese spring wheat region, Italy, India, Canada, Mexico, and Australia; whereas, cultivars carrying all recessive alleles at the four vernalization loci and vrn-A1+vrn-D1+Vrn-B1+vrn-B3 genotypewere mostly found in cultivars from Chinese winter wheat region, United States (US) winter wheat region, Russia winter wheat region, United Kingdom (UK), France, Germany, Romania, Turkey, and Hungary. All cultivars headed normally when sown in autumn. Cultivars with dominant alleles showed earlier heading date than those with recessive alleles, and genotypes with two or more dominant alleles showed additive effects. Some European and US cultivars with recessive genes at the four vernalization loci could not mature in Yangling and Chengdu. Under spring-sown condition, the cultivars with dominant vernalization alleles showed high heading frequency; in contrast, most cultivars with recessive alleles failed to head. Gene Ppd-D1a was distributed mainly in cultivars from China, France, Romania, Russia, Mexico, Australia, and India with the total frequency of 68%. Most cultivars with Ppd-D1b were from high latitude regions, such as UK, Germany, Hungary, and Canada. The Ppd-D1a genotypes appeared to head earlier than the Ppd-D1b genotypes. Daylight condition had no effect on maturity of most Ppd-D1a genotypes, but short daylight condition resulted in failing mature in most Ppd-D1b genotypes. The frequencies of dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 43.0% and 35.0% in the cultivars tested, respectively. Rht-B1b was mainly observed in cultivars from US, Romania, Turkey, Italy, Mexico, and Australia, while Rht-D1b had high frequency in varieties from China, Germany, UK, Italy, and India. Generally, cultivars from one country contain either Rht-B1b or Rht-D1b, andthe frequencies of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were very low in cultivars from high latitude regions. The effect of Rht-B1b, Rht-D1b and Ppd-D1a on reducing plant height was significant, of which Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b exhibited an additive effect.


Milling and Chinese raw white noodle qualities of common wheat near-isogenic lines differing in puroindoline b alleles

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Published in Journal of Cereal Science 50(1): 126-130

Milling and Chinese raw white noodle qualities of common wheat near-isogenic lines differing in puroindoline b alleles

Ma, D.; Zhang, Y.; Xia, X.; Morris, C.F.; He, Zhonghu.

Understanding the effects of different alleles at the puroindoline b (Pinb) locus on processing quality will provide crucial information for quality improvement. Seven near-isogenic lines (NILs) planted at two locations in the 2008 cropping season were used to determine the effect of puroindoline b alleles on milling performance and Chinese raw white noodle (CRWN) quality. The Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotype possessed significantly higher values in grain hardness, protein content and starch damage than other genotypes, whereas the Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d genotype had the lowest grain hardness and starch damage, with higher break flour yield, and less reduction flour yield, higher flour colour L*, and lower flour colour b*, than other genotypes. Farinograph parameters, except for water absorption, were not significantly affected by variation of puroindoline b alleles. Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e had the highest peak viscosity, whereas the lowest value was observed in a Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotype. For CRWN quality, higher noodle viscoelasticity was obtained in the genotype Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g, whereas Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d had a lower smoothness score. Genotypes with Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g produced the best total noodle score. It was concluded that genotype Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1d had better milling qualities, whereas Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1e and Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1g had slightly superior CRWN qualities in comparison with other genotypes

Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of polyphenol oxidase genes in common wheat and related species

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Published in Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56(3):311-321

Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of polyphenol oxidase genes in common wheat and related species

X. Y. He, Z. H. He, C. F. Morris and X. C. Xia

Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes in common wheat and its relatives would greatly advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of grain PPO activity. In the present study, six wheat relative species, including T. urartu, T. boeoticum, T. monococcum, T. dicoccoides, T. durum and Ae. tauschii, were sampled to isolate new alleles at Ppo-A1 and Ppo-D1 loci corresponding to common wheat PPO genes, and seven new alleles were identified from these species, which were designated as Ppo-A1c (from T. urartu), Ppo-A1d (T. boeoticum), Ppo-A1e (T. monococcum and T. durum), Ppo-A1f (T. dicoccoides), Ppo-A1g (T. durum), Ppo-D1c (Ae. tauschii) and Ppo-D1d (Ae. tauschii), respectively. Five out of the seven alleles detected in the wheat relatives contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,731 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 577 residues, which is the same as those of Ppo-A1 and Ppo-D1 genes in common wheat, whereas, the full-length ORF of the allele Ppo-A1g from T. durum was not obtained, and a 73-bp deletion occurred in the third exon of Ppo-D1d, an allele from Ae. tauschii, resulting in a shorter polypeptide of 466 amino acids. The 191-bp insertion in the first intron reported previously in common wheat was also found in T. dicoccoides lines, implying that more than one tetraploid wheat lines may be involved in the origination of common wheat. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the genomic DNA sequences of the seven alleles, together with four from common wheat and four partial PPO gene sequences deposited in GenBank. The genome tribe A was divided into two clusters, one of which contained Ppo-A1d and Ppo-A1e, and the other included the remaining five alleles at Ppo-A1 locus. The alleles from different clusters showed high sequence divergences, indicated by dozens of SNPs and five to six InDels. The genome tribe D comprised the alleles Ppo-D1a, Ppo-D1c, Ppo-D1d and Ppo-D1b, and the former three were clustered together, showing significant sequence divergence from Ppo-D1b. In addition, the relationships between these allelic variants and grain PPO activities were also discussed.