Posts Tagged ‘climate change’

Computer simulation in plant breeding

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Advances in Agronomy 116: 219-264, 2012

Xin Li, Chengsong Zhu, Jiankang Wang and Jianming Yu

As a bridge between theory and experimentation, computer simulation has become a powerful tool in scientific research, providing not only preliminary validation of theories but also guidelines for empirical experiments. Plant breeding focuses on developing superior genotypes with available genetic and nongenetic resources, and improved plant-breeding methods maximize genetic gain and cost-effectiveness. Computer simulation can lay out the breeding process in silico and identify optimal candidates for various scenarios; empirical validation can then follow. Insights gained from empirical studies, in turn, can be incorporated into computer simulations. In this review, we discuss different applications of computer simulation in plant breeding. First, we briefly summarize the history of plant breeding and computer simulation and how computer simulation can facilitate the breeding process. Next, we partition the utility of computer simulation into different research areas of plant breeding, including breeding method comparison, genetic mapping, gene network and genotype-by-environment interaction simulation, and crop modeling. Then we discuss computational issues involved in simulation. Finally, we offer some perspectives on the future of computer simulation in plant breeding.

New book in the library: Crop Stress Management & Global Climate Change

Posted by on , in New Acquisitions

Crop Stress Management and Global Climate Change
CABI Climate Change Series

Edited by J L Araus; G A Slafer
2011
224 Pages
ISBN : 9781845936808

Climate change is a diverse, multifactorial phenomenon, meaning that the agronomic strategies needed are case-specific and will have regional differences. This book provides an integrated view of the challenges and opportunities that will face agriculture in the future as a result of climate change. It discusses how the stresses resulting from climate change can be overcome by assessing, measuring and predicting environmental changes and stresses, identifying opportunities and adapting to change and responding to multifactorial change. Challenges and potential strategies that might be taken to overcome these are illustrated using a number of case studies. Climate change will pose many challenges to agriculture in the future, but by taking an integrative approach to predicting and adapting to change, this book will inspire researchers to turn those challenges into opportunities.

Maize Production in a Changing Climate: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation Strategies

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in  Advances in Agronomy 114: 1-58, 2012

J.E. Cairns, K. Sonder, P.H. Zaidi, N. Verhulst, G. Mahuku, R. Babu, S.K. Nair, B. Das, B. Govaerts, M.T. Vinayan, Z. Rashid, J.J. Noor, P. Devi, F. San Vicente and B.M. Prasanna

Plant breeding and improved management options have made remarkable progress in increasing crop yields during the past century. However, climate change projections suggest that large yield losses will be occurring in many regions, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. The development of climate-ready germplasm to offset these losses is of the upmost importance. Given the time lag between the development of improved germplasm and adoption in farmers’ fields, the development of improved breeding pipelines needs to be a high priority. Recent advances in molecular breeding provide powerful tools to accelerate breeding gains and dissect stress adaptation. This review focuses on achievements in stress tolerance breeding and physiology and presents future tools for quick and efficient germplasm development. Sustainable agronomic and resource management practices can effectively contribute to climate change mitigation. Management options to increase maize system resilience to climate-related stresses and mitigate the effects of future climate change are also discussed.

 

 

Global incidence of wheat rusts and powdery mildew during 1969–2010 and durability of resistance of winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in European Journal of Plant Pathology 1-18, 2011

Global incidence of wheat rusts and powdery mildew during 1969–2010 and durability of resistance of winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1

Alexey Morgounov, Hale Ann Tufan, Ram Sharma, Beyhan Akin, Ahmet Bagci, Hans-Joachim Braun, Yuksel Kaya, Mesut Keser, Thomas S. Payne, Kai Sonder and Robert McIntosh

Disease incidence and severity was studied for winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1 and susceptible checks based on data from international nurseries from 1969 to 2010 and from 51 countries across major winter wheat production regions totalling 1,047 reports. The frequency of leaf rust and stripe rust occurrence was stable over time with marked increases in severity in 2001–2010 especially in Europe and Central and West Asia. Substantial global reductions in stem rust occurrence were recorded and attributed primarily to use of resistance genes although the recent emergence of race Ug99 makes wheat more vulnerable. The occurrence of powdery mildew remained globally stable over time. It was the most important foliar disease in Western and Southern Europe, where the frequency was very high for all time periods coupled with slight increases in severity during 2001–2010. The durable resistance of variety Bezostaya 1 to all four diseases was demonstrated in the study using comparisons of disease severities of Bezostaya 1 and the most susceptible entries. The Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 pleiotrophic set possessed by Bezostaya 1 is currently an important target for selection because it is now amenable to molecular selection. Increased use of genes like Lr34 combined with strategies to minimize cultivation of extremely susceptible varieties will contribute to long term maintenance of low and non-damaging disease levels. The durable disease resistance of Bezostaya 1, combined with its adaptability and good end-use quality, was a significant reason for its huge impact in agriculture over the last 50 years.

 

Book by CIMMYT scientist: Climate Change and Crop Production,

Posted by on , in New Acquisitions

Climate Change and Crop Production

CABI Climate Change Series

Edited by M P Reynolds, CIMMYT, Mexico

2010 / 320 Pages / 9781845936334

Current trends in population growth suggest that global food production is unlikely to satisfy future demand under predicted climate change scenarios unless rates of crop improvement are accelerated. In order to maintain food security in the face of these challenges, a holistic approach that includes stress-tolerant germplasm, sustainable crop and natural resource management, and sound policy interventions will be needed.

 The first volume in the CABI Climate Change Series, this book will provide an overview of the essential disciplines required for sustainable crop production in unpredictable environments. Chapters include discussions of adapting to biotic and abiotic stresses, sustainable and resource-conserving technologies and new tools for enhancing crop adaptation. Examples of successful applications as well as future prospects of how each discipline can be expected to evolve over the next 30 years are also presented. Laying out the basic concepts needed to adapt to and mitigate changes in crop environments, this will be an essential resource for researchers and students in crop and environmental science as well as policy makers 

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