Posts Tagged ‘Adoption’

Impact of direct rice-sowing technology on rice producers’ earnings: empirical evidence from Pakistan

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Development Studies Research: An Open Access Journal (1244-254, 2014.

Ali, A.;Erenstein, O.; Dil Bahadur Rahut

Using the comprehensive data set collected from 238 rice producers during 2011, this study estimates the impact of direct seeding of rice-sowing technology on rice and wheat crop yields and farmers’ earnings in Pakistan. The propensity score-matching approach was employed to correct for potential sample selection bias that may arise due to systematic differences between the adopters and non-adopters of the direct rice-sowing technology. The empirical results indicate that the adopters of the direct rice-sowing technology have higher rice and wheat crop yields as compared to non-adopters. The rice yields are high, in the range of 8–9 maunds per acre, while the wheat yields are higher, in the range of 2–3 maunds per acre, indicating that the direct rice-sowing technology also has a positive impact on the following wheat crop. Results show that the adopter households have a higher income compared to non-adopter households. Most importantly, the new technology is a water-saving technology and on average it requires four times less irrigation than the traditional rice transplanting method. With the direct rice-sowing technology, the demand for skilled labor was less compared to the traditional transplanting method. However, the new technology is associated with a weed control problem, which needs to be addressed in order to maximize the benefits from the new technology.

Determinants of smallholder farmers’ hybrid maize adoption in the drought prone Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in African Journal of Agricultural Research 9 (17) : 1334-1343, 2014

Beshir, B.Dagne Wegary Gissa

This paper examines the factors influencing smallholder farmers’ adoption decision of hybrid maize in drought prone Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia. The analysis is based on data collected through a questionnaire survey of 277 randomly selected maize grower farm household heads. Binary response Logit model was employed in the data analysis. Hybrid maize adoption in the CRV was found to be influenced by age, years of formal education, farmland size, the proportion of farmland allocated to maize, frequency of extension visit, grain market distance and altitude. Extension visit was negatively associated with hybrid maize adoption contrary to the prevailing beliefs and the earlier findings. Extension workers have been promoting open pollinated varieties (OPVs) maize since the OPVs have been more common in drought prone area though the farmers in the CRV also producing hybrids. Even though the prevailing maize hybrids have essentially been released for high potential areas, the production of these hybrids is currently expanding in the CRV where it is grown by 30% of the farmers. Likewise, hybrid maize adoption in this area offers better opportunity for private seed companies’ involvement in the seed provision of adapted hybrids. A paradigm shift in the maize breeding efforts and extension service on hybrid for drought prone areas is commendable in order to enhance the food security of smallholder farmers in the CRV.

Evaluating the impact of improved maize varieties on food security in Rural Tanzania: Evidence from a continuous treatment approach

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Food Security, 2014

Berresaw Menale Kassie; Jaleta, M.; Mattei, A.

This paper investigates impact heterogeneity in the adoption of improved maize varieties using data from rural Tanzania. We used a generalized propensity-score matching methodology, complemented with a parametric econometric method to check the robustness of results. We found a consistent result across models, indicating that adoption increased food security, and that the impact of adoption varied with the level of adoption. On average, an increase of one acre in the area allocated to improved maize varieties reduced the probabilities of chronic and transitory food insecurity from between 0.7 and 1.2 % and between 1.1 and 1.7 %, respectively. Policies that increase maize productivity and ease farmers’ adoption constraints can ensure the allocation of more land to improved technologies and, in doing so, enhance the food security of households.

Regulatory reform of seed systems: Benefits and impacts from a mungbean case study in Nepal

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Field Crops Research 158 : 15-23, 2014

Joshi, K.D.;Khanal, N.P.; Harris, D.; Khanal, N.N.; Sapkota, A.; Khadka, K.; Darai, R.; Neupane, R.K.; Joshi, M.; Witcombe, J.R.

Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) is becoming an important grain legume in Nepal. It can be grown as an additional crop after harvesting winter crops such as winter wheat, winter legumes and oilseeds and before planting main season rice from the low-altitude Terai through to the middle hills of Nepal. Replacing short fallows in the spring, it provides additional high quality food, enhances soil fertility and increases the yield of the following crop. In spite of continued varietal research by the National Grain Legume Research Programme, no mungbean varieties were released from 1975 to 2006. The old variety, Pusa Baishakhi, was released in 1975, but became susceptible to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) and several other diseases so mungbean became limited to a rarely grown, green manure crop. In 2003, we introduced four mungbean varieties resistant to MYMV from the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre. These were evaluated in participatory varietal selection (PVS) mother and baby trials in low fertility and droughted conditions using farmers’ levels of inputs and management. Variety spread was promoted by distributing free small seed samples in a process known as Informal Research and Development (IRD); and community-based seed production and marketing. Of the four varieties, NM94 and VC6372 consistently produced higher grain yields than the local check varieties, were resistant to MYMV and hence were preferred by farmers. The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives endorsed a new variety release procedure in 2005 that permitted the use of data from PVS trials to support the release or registration of new crop varieties. In 2006, on the basis of data generated from PVS trials alone, the National Seed Board released NM94 as ‘Kalyan’ while, on the basis of combined data from the PVS trials and from on-station trials, VC6372 (45-8-1) was released as ‘Prateeksha’. The use of PVS contributed greatly to fast-tracking the release process and this resulted in farmers getting new MYMV-resistant mungbean varieties more quickly. Varieties spread rapidly through IRD and farmer-to-farmer seed networks and provided benefits to farming households. Regulatory reforms to speed up and simplify the process of varietal release are discussed.

Understanding the impact and adoption of conservation agriculture in Africa: A multi-scale analysis

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in  Agriculture, Ecosystems and  Environment, 2013

Corbeels, M.; Graaff, Jan de; Ndah, T.H.; Penot, E.; Baudron, F.; Naudin, K.; Andrieu, N.; Chirat, G.; Schuler, J.; Nyagumbo, I.; Rusinamhodzi, L.;Traore, K.; Mzoba, H.D.; Adolwa, I.S.

Conservation agriculture (CA) is increasingly promoted in Africa as an alternative for coping with the need to increase food production on the basis of more sustainable farming practices. Success with adopting CA on farms in Africa has been limited, despite more than two decades of research and development investments. Through analyzing past and on-going CA experiences in a set of case studies, this paper seeks to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of CA and to assess where, when and for whom CA works best. CA is analyzed and understood within a framework that distinguishes the following scales of analysis: field, farm, village and region. CA has a potential to increase crop yields in the fields, especially under conditions of erratic rainfall and over the long-term as a result of a gradual increase of overall soil quality. The impact on farm income with the practice of CA on some fields of the farm is far less evident, and depends on the type of farm. The lack of an immediate increase in farm income with CA explains in many cases the non-adoption of CA. Smallholders have often short-term time horizons: future benefits do not adequately outweigh their immediate needs. Another key factor that explains the limited CA adoption in mixed crop-livestock farming systems is the fact that crop harvest residues are preferably used as fodder for livestock, preventing their use as soil cover. Finally, in most case studies good markets for purchase of inputs and sale of produce – a key prerequisite condition for adoption of new technologies – were lacking. The case studies show clear evidence for the need to target end users (not all farmers are potential end user of CA) and adapt CA systems to the local circumstances of the farmers, considering in particular the farmer’s investment capacity in the practice of CA and the compatibility of CA with his/her production objectives and existing farming activities. The identification of situations where, when and for whom CA works will help future development agents to better target their investments with CA.

From adoption claims to understanding farmers and contexts: A literature review of Conservation Agriculture (CA) adoption among smallholder farmers in southern Africa

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2013

Andersson, J.A.; D’Souza, S.

This literature review of Conservation Agriculture (CA) adoption among smallholder farmers in southern Africa (Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe) analyses the historical background of the upsurge in CA promotion, the various definitions of CA that have emerged since the 1990s, the barriers to its adoption, as well as uptake figures and adoption studies. First tested as soil and water conservation measures, large-scale promotion followed a reframing of CA as a production-enhancing set of practices. Different definitions of what constitutes and is promoted as CA in southern Africa complicates the assessment of adoption across the region, while a commonly used, reductionist notion of CA adoption – as the uptake of minimum tillage – in adoption data collection, casts doubts on the validity of adoption figures. As CA uptake is often also incentivized by means of input support (fertilizers, seeds, herbicides) provided by promotional projects, adoption claims have limited value. Current CA adoption studies are methodologically weak as they are biased by the promotional project context in which are carried out, and build on farm-scale analyses of standard household surveys. A more thorough analysis of farming households and their resource allocation strategies is required to understand the farm-level adoption constraints different types of farmers face. As contextual factors appear key influences on smallholders’ farming practices, studies focusing on the wider market, institutional and policy context are also needed if we are to understand (limited) CA adoption in southern Africa.

Determinants of Agricultural Technology adoption: the Case of Improved Pigeonpea Varieties in Tanzania

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Published in Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 50(4):325-345, 2011

Determinants of Agricultural Technology adoption: the Case of Improved Pigeonpea Varieties in Tanzania

Simtowe, F.; Kassie, M.; Diagne, A.; Silim, S.; Muange, E.; Asfaw, S.; Shiferaw, B.

If dryland legumes are to meet the expectations of reducing poverty and hunger in the semi-arid tropics, there will be need for a full understanding of their potential for diffusion and the barriers to adoption. We apply a program evaluation technique to data obtained from Tanzania to derive estimates of the actual and potential adoption rates of improved pigeonpea varieties and their determinants. The study reveals that only 33% of the sampled farmers were aware of the improved pigeonpea varieties which consequently restricted the sample adoption rate of improved varieties to only 19%. The potential adoption rate of improved pigeonpea if all farmers had been exposed to improved varieties is estimated at 62% and the adoption gap resulting from the incomplete exposure of the population to the improved pigeonpea is 43%. We further find that the awareness of improved varieties is mainly influenced by attendance of Participatory Variety Selection activities. The adoption of improved varieties is more pronounced among farmers with smaller landholdings suggesting that farmers facing land pressure intensify pigeonpea production through the adoption of improved high yielding varieties. The findings are indicative of the relatively large demand for improved pigeonpea varieties suggesting that there is scope for increasing their adoption rate in Tanzania once the farmers are made aware of the existence of the technologies.

Assessing the potential economic impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in Kenya

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Published in African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (23), pp. 4741-4751, 2011

Assessing the potential economic impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in Kenya

Hugo De Groote, William A. Overholt, James O. Ouma, and J. Wanyama

The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project is currently developing Bt maize for Kenya. So far, Bt genes with resistance to Chilo partellus, Chilo orichalcociliellus, Eldana sacharina, and Sesamia calamistis, four of the five major stemborers were successfully incorporated into elite CIMMYT maize inbred line (CML216) and tested in insect bioassays in Kenya. Participatory Rural Appraisals showed that stem borers are indeed major pest problems for farmers. Four seasons of on-farm crop loss assessment showed an average crop loss of 13.5%, or 0.4 million tons, valued at US$ 80 million. If the project manages to find a Bt gene that is effective to the fifth stemborer, Busseola fusca, adoption rates are likely to be high, and therefore the returns. Under standard assumptions, the economic surplus of the project is calculated at $ 208 million over 25 years(66% of which is consumer surplus) as compared to a cost of $5.7 million. Geographically, the project should focus on the high production moist-transitional zone. However, if such gene cannot be found, Bt maize technology would only be effective in the low potential areas, and adoption rates would be fairly low, although benefits would still exceed costs.

Rapid gains in yield and adoption of new maize varieties for complex hillside environments through farmer participation. II. Scaling-up the adoption through community-based seed production (CBSP)

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Published in Field Crops Research 111(1-2): 144-151
Rapid gains in yield and adoption of new maize varieties for complex hillside environments through farmer participation. II. Scaling-up the adoption through community-based seed production (CBSP)
 
T.P. Tiwari, G. Ortiz-Ferrara, C. Urrea, R.B. Katuwal, K.B. Koirala, R.C. Prasad, D.B. Gurung, D. Sharma, B. Hamal, B. Bhandari and M. Thapa.
 
Abstract:  Participatory varietal selection (PVS) led to the identification of Population-22 and its later release as Manakamana-3. Subsequently further mother–baby trials tested five unreleased open-pollinated varieties (OPVs), ZM-621, Shitala, Population-45, Hill Pool White, and Hill Pool Yellow to compare them with Manakamana-3. Farmers again preferred Manakamana-3 as well as ZM-621 for their stable, higher grain yield, and for other traits such as stay-green, non-lodging, large white grains, and tolerance to foliar diseases. However, Manakamana-3 and ZM-621 both had late maturity, open husks and dented grain. Both were tested with farmers on-farm co-ordinated farmers field trials (CFFTs) and had not been identified as this was more contractual type of participatory research. Individual traits were measured but overall farmers’ preferences were not elicited. In the more collaborative participation of the mother–baby trials the overall preference was determined and farmers traded-off the late maturity and dented grains of Manakamana-3 and ZM-621 against other favourable traits. Depending on location, these genotypes yielded 15–45% more grain than the local varieties in the mother–baby trials. These results led to the release of ZM-621 as Deuti in 2006. Farmers had adopted Manakamana-3 (released in 2002) and ZM-621 (Deuti) as a direct result of PVS trials and increased area under them year after year. Farmers awareness of the varieties has increased and seeds of these varieties are under community-based seed production (CBSP). Involving farmers through a collaborative mode of participation in varietal selection overcame bottlenecks to finding new varieties that had occurred with more contractual on-farm research.