Author Archive

Biological control of Meloidogyne incognita on cucurbitaceous crops by the non-pathogenic endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain 162

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in Journal Articles

Published in International Journal of Pest Management Vol. 57, No. 3.

Biological control of Meloidogyne incognita on cucurbitaceous crops by the non-pathogenic endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain 162

By: R.D. Menjivar, M.H. Hagemann, J. Kranz, J.A. Cabrera, A.A. Dababat and R.A. Sikora


Dual inoculation of the mutualistic endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain 162 (Fo162) applied at 16106 colony-forming units/g of soil, first at sowing and then at transplanting, reduced early root penetration of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 in squash and melon up to 69 and 73%, respectively, compared to the untreated control which had over 250 nematodes per root system. Re-isolation of Fo162 from roots of squash was 28% and melon 27%. The colonization in melon was higher in the upper root zone than in the other two root portions (middle and lower root zones). In contrast, there was no fungal colonization preference among the three root zones investigated in squash. The fresh shoot weight of treated squash with Fo162 was higher than in the untreated control, whereas endophyte treatment did not affect fresh root weight. In melon there were no significant effects on plant growth. In conclusion, the results showed that the biocontrol activity of Fo162 against plant parasitic nematodes is not limited to plants of specific families, and that it has the potential to be used in cucurbitaceous crops such as squash and melon.

Open access journal: International Food and Agribusiness Management Review

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in News

https://www.ifama.orgThe International Food and Agribusiness Management Review (IFAMR) publishes high quality, peer reviewed, scholarly articles on topics related to the practice of management in the food and agribusiness industry. The Journal provides managers, researchers and teachers a forum where they can publish and acquire research results, new ideas, applications of new knowledge, and discussions of issues important to the worldwide food and agribusiness system. The Review is published electronically on this website.

The Review welcomes scholarly articles on business, public policy, law and education pertaining to the global food system. Articles may be applied or theoretical, but must relevant to managers or management scholars studies, industry interviews, and book reviews are also welcome.

The Review also reflects agribusiness scholarship world-wide with over half of its Editorial Board, Managing Editors, and article submissions coming from outside the United States. We welcome inquiries from scholars seeking to become more involved with the management of the IFAMR whether as a Managing Editor, a Special Issue Editor, a member of the Editorial Board, or as a Reviewer.

Pete Shelton from IFPRI visiting CIMMYT library

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in News

Pete Shelton, Information & Knowledge Management Specialist, from International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is visiting CIMMYT library to present approaches and applications implemented by IFPRI library and help us to get up to the speed with the web 2.0 tools for library and information management. A lot of learning on both sides ;o). Some interesting ideas or action points for us:

  • IFPRI is using EZProxy software to facilitate access to subscribed journals to out posted (or travelling) staff members. It seems to be much more viable and simple option than setting proxy access that CIMMYT colleagues have to do …
  • IFPRI is using SurveyMonkey-based survey to its research staff to get yearly update on usefulness of subscription to their set of the journals or need for substitution of some.
  • Many IFPRI applications (including library catalog and and some databases and social media) are hosted by CGnet in California.
  • We need to make sure that the metadata of CIMMYT publications are harvestable by OAIster
  • Harzing (Publish or Perish) – interesting open source application for citation reporting (alternative to expensive ISI web of science)
  • JSTOR – location to search for back issues of journals and articles
  • and we are seriously considering to also enter WORLDCAT.

Pete also presented very clever way that IFPRI is using to enable their research staff to maintain their public biography online (example) with link to most recent (or highlighted) publications – feed from Mendeley.

But this is just a beginning. Tomorrow Pete will be presenting to the website and intranet team how IFPRI handles project websites and than we spend the rest of the week going into technical details of all the technical stuff that CIMMYT would like to implement.

New article from CIMMYT – Biplot Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction: Proceed with Caution

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in Journal Articles

Published in Crop Sci 49:1564-1576 (2009)

Biplot Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction: Proceed with Caution

Rong-Cai Yang, Jose Crossa, Paul L. Cornelius and Juan Burgueño

Abstract: Biplot analysis has been used for studying genotype x environment interaction (GE) or any two-way table. Its descriptive and visualization capabilities along with the availability of user-friendly software have enabled plant scientists to examine any two-way data by a click on a computer button. Despite widespread use, the validityand limitations of biplot analysis have not been completely examined. Here we identify and briefly discuss six key issues surrounding overutilization or abuse of biplot analysis. We question (i) whether the retention of the first two multiplicative terms in the biplot analyses is adequate; (ii) whether the biplot can be more than a simple descriptive technique; (iii) how realistic a “which-won-where” pattern is identified from a biplot; (iv) what if genotypes and/or environments are random effects; (v) how relevant biplot analysis is to the understanding of the nature and causes of interaction; and (vi) how much the biplot analysis can contribute to detection of crossover interaction. We stress the need for use of confidence regions for individual genotype and environment scores in biplots to make critical decisions on genotype selection or cultivar recommendation based on a statistical test. We conclude that the biplot analysis is simply a visually descriptive statistical tool and researchers should proceed with caution if using biplot analysis beyond this simple function.

New article from CIMMYT – Mega-Environment Identification for Barley Based on Twenty-Seven Years of Global Grain Yield Data

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in Journal Articles

Published in Crop Sci 49:1705-1718 (2009)

Mega-Environment Identification for Barley Based on Twenty-Seven Years of Global Grain Yield Data

Eduardo Hernandez-Segundo, Flavio Capettini, Richard Trethowan, Maarten van Ginkel, Apolinar Mejia, Aquiles Carballo, Jose Crossa, Mateo Vargas andArtemio Balbuena-Melgarejo

Abstract: Knowledge of target environments in breeding programs is important to better direct the development of germplasm. The objectives of this study were to identify associations among barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing environments to identify mega-environments to select the best locations to breed barley. Twenty-seven years of grain yield data from the International Barley Yield Trial (IBYT) conducted by the ICARDA-CIMMYT Barley Breeding Program, consisting of 750 grain yield trials of two replications representing 235 locations in 75 countries, were analyzed using pattern analysis to group sites across years that represent similar selection environments. The shifted multiplicative model (SHMM) was employed to group sites within each year. Environments clustered into three main groups and squared Euclidean distances were used to identify a representative location within each cluster. Group 1 locations were characterized as being cool with intermediate precipitation; Group 2 locations were warmer and drier; and Group 3 sites were generally cool and had the highest average precipitation. The respective representative key locations for each of the three groups were Leida, Spain; Boulifa, Tunisia; and Setif, Algeria. All three key locations are located in the Northern Hemisphere between 36° and 41° latitude. Theresults of this study show that the global adaptation of barley is possible and can be improved by breeding and selection for adaptation within the three main mega-environments identified.

New book in the library: Wheat Science and Trade

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in New Acquisitions

wheatWheat: Science and Trade is an up-to-date, comprehensive reference work designed to expand the current body of knowledge on this staple crop, incorporating new information made available by genetic advances, improvements in the understanding of wheat’s biology, and changes in the wheat trade industry. Covering phylogeny and ontogeny, manipulation of the environment and optimal management, genetic improvement, and utilization and commercialization, the book focuses on the most economically significant diseases and impacts.

Wheat: Science and Trade is divided into four major sections covering all aspects of the wheat plant, crop, cultivar and industry.  Section one offers a firm grounding in the development and domestication of wheat with an extensive overview of diseases and pathogens following in Section two. Section three focuses on genetic strategies including QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, genome organization and comparative genomics, and synthetic wheat as an emerging technology.  Section four concludes the text with a discussion of changes in industry trade, quality assessment, and new uses for wheat and modified wheat products.

Written by a global team of expert authors, Wheat: Science and Trade is presented in a user-friendly format making it equally accessible to a wide variety of readers.  Applicable for the academic, research, consulting, and end-user communities, this text is a must have reference on this key staple crop.

Key Features:

  • Provides an up-to-date authoritative reference on a globally consumed and produced crop
  • Focuses on the most economically significant production constraints and impacts
  • Includes interconnecting sections on the wheat plant, crop, cultivar, and industry
  • Includes chapters from a world-wide team of leading experts
  • Provides concise summaries for each chapter and perspectives on emerging research areas

The book includes two chapters co-authored by CIMMYT scientists Julie Nicol and Ivan Ortiz Monasterio.

New CIMMYT publication: Wheat Facts and Futures 2009

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in CIMMYT Publications

Dixon, John ; Braun, Hans-Joachim ; Kosina, Petr ; Crouch, Jonathan (2009). Wheat Facts and Futures 2009. CIMMYT. Mexico.

wwff For nearly half a century, the international wheat breeding system has delivered improved high yielding varieties of wheat that created (along with rice) the Green Revolution and underpinned strong growth in wheat productivity in irrigated and rainfed, developed and underdeveloped, regions. Future priorities for breeding and complementary sciences will still include yield but will also diversify in response to changing market demands and growing environments, particulary in developing countries. It is argued that in the coming decades research on wheat quality characteristics will become increasingly important to plant breeders, whose work will be supported by the development of markers and advanced tools from molecular biology. Breeders will have to contend with increased heat stress and variability stemming from climate change, which is expected to create regional winners, as the northern high latitudes grow warmer and moister, and losers, as the sub-tropics and tropics increasingly suffer from heat stress and drought. Yield response of improved varieties in farmers’ fields depends to a very great degree on sustainable systems management, which also is essential to reverse the ongoing degradation of agricultural resources. Finally, the importance of expanding the systems lens from farmers to policy makers, and of linking farmers, commerce, science, and policy is illustrated for the rice-wheat farming systems of South Asia.

New book in the library: Search for new genes

Posted by Petr Kosina on , in New Acquisitions

Search for new genes. (2007) by VL Chopra, RP Sharma, SR Bhat and BM Prasanna. Academic Foundation, New Delhi.

Among the editors/contributors are also listed: K. Pixley, L. Badstue and D. Bergvinson.

search-for-new-genesRecent progress in molecular biology and biotechnology is impacting the life sciences as well as the lives of people in unprecedented ways. Plant genetic transformation and molecular marker technologies have led to a paradigm shift in plant genetic resource management and crop improvement. Granting patent protection to genes has not only provided incentive for gene discovery and placed monetary value on germplasm resources, but also raised concerns about ownership and access to genetic resources. This book is an outcome of the presentations made during Dr. B.P. Pal Birth Centenary Symposium organized by the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), New Delhi, India, in February 2006. It begins with the commemorative lectures, which trace the evolution of approaches to the search for new genes in the last seven decades, since the seminal article written by Dr. B.P. Pal on the ‘Search for new genes’ in 1936. The book provides a comprehensive update of the modern biotechnological options for biodiversity management, gene prospecting, development of ‘designer crops’ and bioremediation. The power of molecular genetics in dissection of complex biological processes, and the potential utility of the knowledge that links genes to metabolic pathways and phenotypes for plant improvement are highlighted. The book covers strategies for harnessing the community and individual knowledge for genetic resource management and gene discovery, and presents models for benefit sharing and participatory plant breeding. Written by eminent experts in the field, the book shall be of significant interest not only to the academic and research community worldwide, but also to the policy makers and science administrators.