Author Archive

Gestion des entreprises semencieres en Afrique

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in CIMMYT Publications

Gestion des entreprises semencieres en Afrique. 2014. MacRobert, J.F. Mexico, DF (Mexico): CIMMYT xviii, 225 p.

99381.pdfLa dernière décennie a connu une forte croissance du nombre de nouvelles entreprises semencières émergentes en Afrique, en Asie et en Amérique latine. Si celles-ci prospèrent, elles contribueront considérablement à la croissance économique des pays, régions et des agriculteurs. L’utilisation de semences de variétés améliorées constitue l’essence même du progrès en matière de productivité agricole. Il s’agit d’un catalyseur majeur pour les investissements en engrais organiques et inorganiques, pour les pratiques agricoles de maintien et qui offre une plus grande rémunération aux agriculteurs. Cependant, moins de la moitié des agriculteurs des pays à faible revenu ont accès aux semences de maïs à haut rendement et encore moins à d’autres cultures. Les entreprises semencières émergentes explorent de nouveaux marchés, offrent des semences de variétés et de types de récoltes plus variées, informent et offrent une formation aux agriculteurs : leur succès est essentiel pour la réussite de l’économie agricole.

Gestão da Indústria de Sementes em África

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in CIMMYT Publications

Gestão da Indústria de Sementes em África. 2014. MacRobert, J.F. Mexico, DF (Mexico): CIMMYT xviii, 225 p.

99382.pdfNa última década registou-se um forte crescimento no número de novas empresas de sementes que surgiram em África, na Ásia e na América Latina. Se forem bem-sucedidas, irão contribuir enormemente para o crescimento económico dos seus países, regiões e agricultores. A utilização de variedades melhoradas de sementes envolve a essência da melhoria da produtividade agrícola e é um dos principais catalisadores no investimento em fertilizantes orgânicos e inorgânicos, conservação de práticas e trabalho agrícolas para assegurar uma maior rentabilidade aos agricultores. No entanto, menos de 50% de todos os agricultores nos países de baixos rendimentos têm acesso a sementes de milho que aumentam a rentabilidade e menos ainda a outras sementes. As empresas de sementes agora emergentes exploram novos mercados, disponibilizam sementes e culturas de variedades mais diversificadas, informam e educam os agricultores: o seu sucesso é fundamental para o sucesso das economias agrícolas.

12th Asian Maize Conference and Expert Consultation on maize for food, feed, nutrition and environmental security; Bangkok (Thailand), 30-1 Oct-Nov 2014 : proceedings

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in CIMMYT Publications

9974312th Asian Maize Conference and Expert Consultation on maize for food, feed, nutrition and environmental security; Bangkok (Thailand), 30-1 Oct-Nov 2014 : proceedings. 2015. Paroda, R.; Prasanna, B.M.; Dasgupta, B.M.S.; Jat, M.L. (eds.). Bangkok (Thailand): APAARI / CIMMYT / FAO / Thailand Department of AGriculture xvii, 81 p.

Maize is a major food, feed and industrial crop and offers immense opportunities for attaining nutritional security in the developing countries of Asia. In fact, annual production growth rate in maize had been higher in Asia compared to global average, reflecting thereby tremendous potential for future upscaling and outscaling of innovations to have greater impact on livelihoods of smallholder farmers. The demand for maize is also expected to double by 2050. On the contrary, the maize production and productivity are severely constrained by an array of factors which need to be addressed urgently. For sustainable increase in yields and stabilizing prices, concerted efforts are required at the policy level to create enabling environment for long-term AR4D investments. The growing needs of the poultry and swine piggery sectors (especially in Southeast Asia and China), the expansion of maize seed industry, and the increasing interest of the consumers in nutritionally enriched and specialty maize products, require greater attention from both research and development viewpoints. Also, the CGIAR Research Program (CRP) on Maize “Global Alliance for Improving Food Security and the Livelihoods of the Resource-Poor in the Developing World” offers opportunities to catalyze stakeholder initiatives in the region to scale-out innovations in maize-based systems by building new public-private partnerships (PPPs).

Molecular Breeding for Quality Protein Maize (QPM)

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Molecular Breeding for Quality Protein Maize (QPM). 2014. Babu, R.; Prasanna, B.M. p. 489-505. In: Genomics of Plant Genetic Resources; Vol. 2 Crop productivity, food security and nutritional quality. Tuberosa, R.; Graner, A.; Frison, E. (Eds.). Netherlands:  Springer.

98827Maize endosperm protein is deficient in two essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. Several spontaneous and induced mutations that affect amino acid composition in maize have been discovered amongst which the o2 gene (opaque2) has been used in association with endosperm and amino acid modifier genes for developing Quality Protein Maize (QPM), which contains almost double the amount of endosperm lysine and tryptophan as compared to the normal/non-QPM maize. These increases have been shown to have dramatic impacts on human and animal nutrition, growth and performance. A range of hard endosperm QPM germplasm has been developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) mostly through conventional breeding approaches to meet the requirements of various maize growing regions across the world. Microsatellite markers located within the o2 gene provided opportunities for accelerating the pace of QPM conversion programs through marker-assisted selection (MAS). More recently, CIMMYT scientists are striving to develop reliable, easy-to-use markers for endosperm hardness and free amino acid content in the maize endosperm. Recent technological developments including high throughput, single seed-based DNA extraction, coupled with low-cost, high density SNP genotyping strategies, and breeder-ready markers for some key adaptive traits in maize, promise enhanced efficiency and cost effectiveness of MAS in QPM breeding programs. Here, we present a summary of QPM research and breeding with particular emphasis on genetic and molecular basis of o2, epistasis between o2 and other high-lysine mutant genes, and the recent advances in genomics technologies that could potentially enhance the efficiency of molecular breeding for QPM in the near future.

Compendium of deliverables of the conservation agriculture course 2014

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in CIMMYT Publications

Compendium of deliverables of the conservation agriculture course 2014. 2014. Verhulst, N.; Mulvaney, M.J.; Cox, R.; Van Loon, J.; Nichols, V. (eds.). Mexico, DF (Mexico): CIMMYT iv, 43 p.

99448.pdfThis book is the result of the hard work of 5 CIMMYT trainees who work on sustainable practices in India, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, and participated in the 2014 visiting scientist program “Conservation agriculture: Laying the groundwork for sustainable and productive cropping systems”. Over 5 weeks the scientists received an intense training program that combined mentoring and problem solving approaches. They actively participated in the ongoing cropping systems management activities of CIMMYT’s Global Conservation Agriculture Program, Latin-America, at the experimental stations near Mexico City at El Batán and Toluca, and in nearby farmers? fields. Emphasis was given to conservation agriculturebased technologies for both irrigated and rainfed conditions: reduced tillage, using alternative crop residue management strategies and crop rotation.Wheat and maize were the main crops under study.

CIMMYT Annual Report 2013: Agricultural research for development to improve food and nutritional security

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in CIMMYT Publications

CIMMYT Annual Report 2013: Agricultural research for development to improve food and nutritional security. 2014. CIMMYT, Int.. : 136 p.. Mexico, DF (Mexico). CIMMYT. Series: CIMMYT Annual Report

99444.pdfThrough research, development, training and capacity building, CIMMYT works with partners to sustainably increase the productivity of maize- and wheat-based cropping systems. Focused on improving food and nutritional security and improving livelihoods in the developing world, CIMMYT is a member of CGIAR and leads the MAIZE and WHEAT CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs)..

 

Antibiosis Mechanism of Resistance to Larger Grain Borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Maize

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Journal of Entomology  11 (5) : 248-260, 2014

Nhamucho, E.;  Mugo, S.N.;  Kinyua, M.;  Gohole, L.;  Tadele Tefera;  Mulima, E.

Host plant resistance is a valuable component of integrated pest management in maize. Maize stored on-farm without controlled moisture content and insecticide treatment is highly susceptible to damage by Larger Grain Borer (LGB),Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of Mozambican maize genotypes against P. truncatus. Seventeen maize genotypes composed of seven experimental hybrids, one released hybrid, two improved open pollinated varieties (OPV), three landraces from Mozambique and four checks (two resistant and two susceptible) from Kenya were screened for their resistance to LGB. The F1 and F2 hybrids were evaluated at Kiboko, Kenya in a completely randomized design trial, replicated four times in a post-harvest laboratory. A selection index computed from the number of LGB, grain weight loss (%), seed damage (%) and flour weight were used to categorize the materials as either resistance or susceptible. Fifty percent of the F1 hybrids tested were resistant, 25% moderately resistant and 25% susceptible. Twenty five percent of F2 hybrids evaluated were resistant and 75% susceptible. EV8430DMRSR, an OPV and Kandjerendjere, a landrace were the most resistant genotypes with less than 10% weight loss and less than 25% seed damage. This study showed that high protein content contributed towards resistance while high starch contributed to susceptibility. It was concluded that antibiosis mechanism could contribute to LGB resistance in maize. The identified resistant genotypes could be used as cultivar or as source of resistance in maize breeding programs for resistance to LGB.

Relative preferences for soil conservation incentives among smallholder farmers: evidence from Malawi

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 2014

Marenya, P.Smith, V.H.;  Nkonya, E.

This paper uses framed choice experiments to examine the preferences of smallholder farmers in Malawi regarding alternative policy-based incentives to adopt conservation practices that reduce soil erosion and increase yields. The policy incentives offered in the choice experiments included an ideal index-based crop insurance contract, an index insurance contract with basis risk, cash payments, and fertilizer subsidies. Prior to implementing the choice experiments, the farmers participated in a workshop utilizing small group-based dynamic learning games that demonstrated how index-based crop insurance contracts function. The choice experiment results indicate that most farmers preferred cash payments to index insurance contracts, even when the insurance contracts offered substantially higher expected returns. Further, more risk averse farmers were more likely to prefer cash payments than less risk averse and risk loving farmers.

Modeling the effect of a heat wave on maize production in the USA and its implications on food security in the developing world

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Weather and Climate Extremes, 2014

Chung, U.;  Gbegbelegbe, S.D.;  Shiferaw, B.;  Robertson, R.;  Jin I. Yun;  Kindie Tesfaye Fantaye;  Hoogenboom, G.Sonder, K.

This study uses geo-spatial crop modeling to quantify the biophysical impact of weather extremes. More specifically, the study analyzes the weather extreme which affected maize production in the USA in 2012; it also estimates the effect of a similar weather extreme in 2050, using future climate scenarios. The secondary impact of the weather extreme on food security in the developing world is also assessed using trend analysis. Many studies have reported on the significant reduction in maize production in the USA due to the extreme weather event (combined heat wave and drought) that occurred in 2012. However, most of these studies focused on yield and did not assess the potential effect of weather extremes on food prices and security. The overall goal of this study was to use geo-spatial crop modeling and trend analysis to quantify the impact of weather extremes on both yield and, followed food security in the developing world.

We used historical weather data for severe extreme events that have occurred in the USA. The data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In addition we used five climate scenarios: the baseline climate which is typical of the late 20th century (2000s) and four future climate scenarios which involve a combination of two emission scenarios (A1B and B1) and two global circulation models (CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC 3.2). DSSAT 4.5 was combined with GRASS GIS for geo-spatial crop modeling. Simulated maize grain yield across all affected regions in the USA indicates that average grain yield across the USA Corn Belt would decrease by 29% when the weather extremes occur using the baseline climate. If the weather extreme were to occur under the A1B emission scenario in the 2050s respectively, average grain yields would decrease by 38% and 57%, under the CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC 3.2 global climate models, respectively. The weather extremes that occurred in the USA in 2012 resulted in a sharp increase in the world maize price. In addition, it likely played a role in the reduction in world maize consumption and trade in 2012/13, compared to 2011/12. The most vulnerable countries to the weather extremes are poor countries with high maize import dependency ratios including those countries in the Caribbean, northern Africa and western Asia. Other vulnerable countries include low-income countries with low import dependency ratios but which cannot afford highly-priced maize. The study also highlighted the pathways through which a weather extreme would affect food security, were it to occur in 2050 under climate change. Some of the policies which could help vulnerable countries counter the negative effects of weather extremes consist of social protection and safety net programs. Medium- to long-term adaptation strategies include increasing world food reserves to a level where they can be used to cover the production losses brought by weather extremes.

Zero-tolerance for genetic pollution: Rice farming, pharm rice, and the risks of coexistence in California

Posted by Carelia Juarez on , in Journal Articles

Published in Food Policy 45 125-131, 2014

Mulvaney, D.Krupnik, T.J.

California’s Rice Certification Act (RCA) requires specific planting and handling protocols for rice, including genetically engineered (GE) rice that could pose commercial risks to rice growers. Based on interviews with growers, marketers, activists, and other stakeholders, as well as secondary sources, this paper describes this policy’s emergence and evolution using a global commodity chain approach. Several studies suggest that GE herbicide tolerant rice would yield profits for California growers struggling with rising weed control costs. Instead, GE rice was greeted with scrutiny by the California industry and legislators because Asian export markets had zero-tolerance for GE rice contamination. This paper examines how nature’s agency—the “unruly” qualities of agro-ecosystem functions, the movement of wildlife, seeds, and pollen across space—strengthened narratives about risk and industry consensus around zero-tolerance rules for GE rice. In addition to recounting the origins of zero-tolerance demands and containment regulations for California rice, this research explores how calls for food safety and zero-tolerance rules are mobilized as surrogate for wider political economic aims.